Looking Back

Former President George H.W. Bush signed Public Law 101-646, Title III CWPPRA into law in 1990 to combat the national issue of coastal land loss. Over 25 years after he left office and a week after the late President’s day of mourning, this legislation is still providing protection to billions of dollars’ worth of industry, major human settlements, and beautiful ecosystems.

At 28 years of projects and counting, CWPPRA is among the longest-standing federally-funded restoration ventures in the country, as well as one of the most successful. To date, 210 projects have been authorized across Louisiana’s coastal zone to restore 100,000+ acres of wetlands. Each year of operation, CWPPRA has approved funding on multiple projects scattered across our coast. The locations of our projects can be found at https://lacoast.gov/new/About/Basins.aspx.

CWPPRA projects are proposed by anyone and developed in conjunction with one of our 5 federal managing agencies and Louisiana’s Coastal Protection and Restoration Authority. The process of project selection is always a rigorous competition between candidate projects across Louisiana’s coast. Each proposal presents estimated ecological benefits, cost estimates, and a detailed plan for the desired project. At the beginning of each calendar year, Regional Planning Team meetings are held across the coast to hear proposals. The proposed projects are compiled into an annual Project Priority List (PPL). Upcoming proposal meetings can be found Jan 29-31, 2019 on our calendar at https://lacoast.gov/calendar/. Over the next year the CWPPRA Technical Committee and Task Force narrow the list of candidate projects. In December, the Technical Committee recommends their top 4 projects to the Task Force. The Task Force finally votes in January on the 4 projects they will fund for Phase I Engineering and Design. This annual cycle will complete its 28th round in late January 2019.

CWPPRA is excited about wrapping up PPL 28 next month and starting on PPL 29! Be on the lookout for announcements about projects chosen for funding at the January 24th Task Force meeting. We look forward to continuing our efforts to #ProtectOurCoast!

 

Featured image from https://projects.propublica.org/louisiana/

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Cameron Prairie National Wildlife Refuge Shoreline Protection (ME-09)

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The management levee between the GIWW and the
Cameron Prairie National Wildlife Refuge was in danger
of breaching as a result of erosion from boat traffic in the
GIWW. If breaching had occurred, wave energy from the
GIWW and salt water would have entered the organic,
freshwater wetlands.

A 13,200-foot rock breakwater was constructed 50 feet
from the northern bank of the GIWW to prevent waves
caused by boat traffic from overtopping and eroding the
remaining spoil bank.
The project’s effectiveness is being evaluated by shoreline
movement surveys and by comparing pre-construction and
post-construction aerial photographs for changes in marsh
loss rates.

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This project is located in Cameron Parish, Louisiana, on
the north shore of the Gulf Intracoastal Waterway
(GIWW), approximately 7 miles southeast of Sweet Lake
and to the east of Louisiana Highway 27 at its intersection
with the GIWW. It encompasses 640 acres of fresh marsh
and open water.

During 1993-97, while the project area had a 4.9% increase in
water coverage due to management for waterfowl, the
reference area remained unchanged.

The results of shoreline monitoring indicate that the project
has protected 13,200 feet of shoreline, along with 247 acres of
marsh north of the dike. This protection is expected to accrue
throughout the life of the project for a net restoration of at
least 23 acres. Monitoring has shown that the GIWW’s
northern shoreline advanced 9.8 feet per year in the project
area while retreating at a rate of 3.0 feet per year in the
reference area, indicating that low sediment availability does
not prohibit wetland creation behind rock dikes on navigation
channels.

To date, the project has exhibited success. It is expected that
the project area will continue to accrete new wetland area
between the spoil bank and the rock dike, further
safeguarding the adjacent wetland area from encroachment by
the GIWW.

This project is on Priority Project List 1.

 

The Federal Sponsor is USFWS

The Local Sponsor is CPRA

Living Shorelines

According to NOAA, one of our managing agencies, a living shoreline is “A protected and stabilized shoreline that is made of natural materials such as plants, sand, or rock.” [1] In some situations, living shorelines are a better option than hardened shoreline protection because they have more movement of natural sediment, the ability to grow, and the obvious aesthetic value of a natural area.

‘Living shorelines’ can refer to multiple restoration techniques and coastal environments; for CWPPRA, a living shoreline can mean vegetative planting on a marsh creation cell or using a shoreline protection barrier that promotes oyster reef growth. Living restored shorelines help maintain the integrity of ecosystems, but they also provide benefits to recreation and potentially to commerce. One big push in restoration over the past few years has been artificial oyster reefs which provide wave attenuation, natural water filtration, and a harvestable population of oysters for the seafood industry. [2]

Illustration, Courtesy of NOAA [1]
Vegetated marsh provides similar benefits to artificial oyster reefs and is a tried-and-true restoration strategy. Many marsh creation projects will naturally revegetate thanks to seed banks in borrow sites but some need management to limit invasive species. In more vulnerable sites, CWPPRA actively plants native species like smooth cordgrass and California bulrush to give them an advantage against invasive populations.

CWPPRA understands that successful restoration projects, including shoreline protection, help keep ecosystems intact and productive. A changing coast means we need changing solutions, and we will strive to find better alternatives to maintain the natural environment.

[1] https://oceanservice.noaa.gov/facts/living-shoreline.html

[2] https://www.smithsonianmag.com/innovation/storms-get-bigger-oyster-reefs-can-help-protect-shorelines-180967774/

Featured image from https://oceanbites.org/oyster_reef_restoration/

 

East Sabine Lake Hydrologic Restoration (CS-32)

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The lower salinity marshes are converting to shallow, open water due to elevated salinity events and subsidence. Navigation channels provide a direct route for salt water to infiltrate the marsh, disrupt the natural water circulation, and allow rapid runoff of fresh water. The larger Sabine-Neches Waterway and the Gulf Intracoastal Waterway (GIWW) have allowed saltwater intrusion into the project area’s fresh and intermediate marshes. Elevated tidal fluctuations in these channels have led to increased water flow, which has increased the conversion of marsh to open water. Area marsh loss is also caused by wave action along Sabine Lake and interior marsh shorelines and other natural causes (i.e., subsidence).

The project features include: a rock weir in Pines Ridge Bayou; three culverts with flap gates at Bridge Bayou; a 3,000 foot-long rock rip-rap breakwater along the Sabine Lake shoreline at Willow Bayou; a weir/plug at the opening at Starks South Canal Section 16 levee; and 232,000 linear feet of vegetated earthen terraces in the vicinity of Greens Lake.

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The project is located in the western portion of the Sabine National Wildlife Refuge from Pool 3 to the eastern shoreline of Sabine Lake in Cameron Parish, Louisiana.

Construction was completed in October 2010.

This project is on Priority Project List 10.

The Federal Sponsor is U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service

The Local Sponsor is CPRA

Coastal Permitting and Mitigation

With the United States midterm elections coming up, this week’s Wetland Wednesday focuses on the roles of government in coastal restoration, specifically permitting and mitigation. Of course, each coastal parish has their own government and representatives, and the State of Louisiana has dedicated offices for coastal restoration.

Anyone who wants to construct a restoration project in the coastal zone must go through the State of Louisiana Department of Natural Resources (DNR) to obtain the proper permitting, most commonly a Coastal Use Permit. [1] The DNR requires all who apply for a coastal use permit to prove that they have sufficiently addressed the need for environmental damage mitigation. CWPPRA-funded projects are permitted through this office because they have sufficient positive environmental impact. Our engineers and managers must prove that they have done the necessary surveys and sustainable development plans. Other coastal uses that require permitting include dock construction, dredging and infilling, and oil well capping and abandonment.

All permits are distributed with the intent of preserving net ecosystem integrity, meaning that if there is a large impact at the project location, damage mitigation measures are required. Recent legislation at the state level has been moving toward the idea of “Environmental Banking”, [2] which would allow developers to invest in the coastal zone, providing funds for restoration and earning credits that can be cashed in for mitigation needs. This process would get dollars on the ground in advance to help fund restoration. Since local damage is so common in development, environmental bank investors must invest in the bank that deals with the zone they will want to develop.

CWPPRA was enacted in 1990 to minimize coastal land loss. One of the most important goals of our projects is to provide a net benefit to the local environment. Legislation and permitting allow us to do this vital work, and we appreciate the efforts in Louisiana toward responsible coastal use. We hope everyone, both in government and the larger public, continues to view coastal land loss as a serious threat to the economy, ecosystems, and civilization.

[1] http://www.dnr.louisiana.gov/index.cfm?md=pagebuilder&tmp=home&pid=85&ngid=5

[2] http://www.jmbcompanies.com/Services/Mitigation/mitigation-banking-environmental

Wild Things

On Saturday, October 13th, the CWPPRA outreach team rolled up to the Southeast Louisiana National Wildlife Refuges Headquarters in Lacombe, LA for Wild Things. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service puts on Wild Things every year during National Wildlife Refuge Week to celebrate wildlife and getting out into nature. This year we brought our Wetland Wonders game, along with all our regular publications. We underestimated how popular our materials would be and quickly ran out of everything. We were set up on a beautiful day in the shade. Nearby, families could learn about wilderness survival, injured bird rehabilitation, native animal and plant species, and much more.

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The Wetland Wonders game was well-received by children and adults alike. We had a short lull around lunchtime but otherwise the boxes constantly had visitors. Our Wetland Wonders activity asks players to guess the object inside the box without looking at it. Players can feel inside and read clues that are on the front of the boxes. Many people start out timid from the mystery but play the game once they believe there is nothing alive or gross in the boxes. We enjoy events like this and we urge you to seek similar events for your family and friends. To find more events by the Fish and Wildlife Service, you can visit their website and search for your nearest Wildlife Refuge. Get out and #ProtectOurCoast!

Girl Scouts B.I.G. Event

On September 29, CWPPRA Outreach visited with local Girl Scouts at their big event; the B.I.G. (Believe In G.I.R.L.) Event, hosted by Girl Scouts Louisiana East. Hundreds of scout groups walked the grounds of the University of New Orleans, bouncing from activity to activity. The aim of the event was to introduce girls to STEM, life skills, the outdoors, and other potential interests. Participants could learn about trade schools, non-Newtonian fluids (oobleck), and even get on a Coast Guard helicopter. Our table was constantly bustling despite being at the corner of the event. Our activity books, #ProtectOurCoast posters, and stickers were flying off the table. Our Wetland Jeopardy game was also a big hit, with teams playing cooperatively or with head-on competition between scouts. Nearby, the UNO Environmental Science department had a table set up to demonstrate how wetlands attenuate storm surge and form our first line of defense, the Master Naturalists of New Orleans brought some fascinating insects and a diamondback terrapin, and the Great Coastalini from CPRA (Chuck Perrodin) revealed the Louisiana coastline’s disappearing act.

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