Soil Biology

Soil biology may be considered the most important component of soil health and production [1]. Soil food web’s have tiny, microscopic organisms; also known as microorganisms. These living creatures may be tiny, but they live as very large populations in the soil, and other natural environments like water, air, and plants roots.

Soil_Food_Web

The Four Main Microorganism Groups of Soil:

  1. Soil Bacteria (mostly decomposers) [2].
  2. Soil Fungi
  3. Soil Protozoa (feed mostly on bacteria) [4].
  4. Soil Nematodes (feed on plants, bacteria, fungi, and/or other nematodes) [5].

The other two main groups of Soil Biology:

  1. Soil Arthropods (have no backbone) [6].
  2. Soil Earthworms

Soil Organisms

Microorganisms help bind soil together, which helps clean the soil and hold water for plant life. In ecosystems like wetlands, diverse communities of bacteria can help plants fight off harmful diseases. A major benefit of soil microorganisms is the decomposition of dead plant and animal life, along with the breakdown and creation of nutrients.

Advantages of Soil Organisms: [1, 10].

  • Create healthy nutrients for plants
  • Improve Soil Health and quality (nutrient rich, water holding capacity)
  • Fight off diseases for plants
  • Degrade human-caused pollutants (fertilizers, pesticides used in agriculture)
  • Benefit the food-web as a whole
  • Improve plant health and longevity
  • Microbiomes transform dead plant materials into soil organic matter

The living organisms of the soil provide the requirements needed to support plant, animal, and human life. You can support healthy microorganism communities in soil by: 

  • decreasing or preventing plowing and tilling in garden and agriculture fields [9].
  • plant cover crops to reduce soil erosion and funnel carbon into the atmosphere [9].
  • conserving microbes that provide biomass to plants
  • incorporate soil health management systems into your daily practices [10]
  • protect the soil from weather applying mulch / and or cover crops
  • proper composting

Interesting Facts draft2

Work Cited:
[1] Effective Microorganisms of New Zealand, https://www.emnz.com/article/soil-health-series-soil-microbes
[2] Ingham, Elaine R.  “Soil Bacteria”. USDA, Natural Resources Conservation Service, 26 March 2018, https://www.nrcs.usda.gov/wps/portal/nrcs/detailfull/soils/health/biology/?cid=nrcs142p2_053862
[3] Ingham, Elaine R.  “Food Web & Soil Health”. USDA, Natural Resources Conservation Service, 26 March 2018, https://www.nrcs.usda.gov/wps/portal/nrcs/detailfull/soils/health/biology/?cid=nrcs142p2_053865
[4] Ingham, Elaine R.  “Soil Protozoa”. USDA, Natural Resources Conservation Service, 26 March 2018, https://www.nrcs.usda.gov/wps/portal/nrcs/detailfull/soils/health/biology/?cid=nrcs142p2_053867
[5] Ingham, Elaine R.  “Soil Nematodes”. USDA, Natural Resources Conservation Service, 26 March 2018, https://www.nrcs.usda.gov/wps/portal/nrcs/detailfull/soils/health/biology/?cid=nrcs142p2_053866
[6] Moldenke, Andrew R. “Soil Arthropods”. USDA, Natural Resources Conservation Service, 26 March 2018, https://www.nrcs.usda.gov/wps/portal/nrcs/detailfull/soils/health/biology/?cid=nrcs142p2_053861
[7] Pollard, Peter. (27 March 2018) "Microbes and the Missing Carbon Dioxide". Tedx Noosa, [Video File], https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=48UtbgtFKTg 
[8] USDA, Natural Resources Conservation Service “Soil Food Web”. 26 March 2018, https://www.nrcs.usda.gov/wps/portal/nrcs/main/soils/health/biology/ 
[9] Wallenstein, Matthew. "To Restore Our Soils, Feed The Microbes". The Conservation, 27 March 2018, https://theconversation.com/to-restore-our-soils-feed-the-microbes-79616
[10] Zimmerman, Chuck. "General Mills Backing Soil Health Program". Ag-Wired, 27 March 2018, http://agwired.com/2017/04/26/general-mills-backing-soil-health-program/
[11] Pollard, Peter. (27 March 2018) "Microbes and the Missing Carbon Dioxide". Tedx Noosa, [Video File], https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=48UtbgtFKTg

 

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Wetland Vegetation

Wetland ecologists often refer to wetland vegetation as the foundation of coastal restoration. Native plants and vegetative plantings both provide significant benefits to wetlands. Wetland plants build and stabilize soil, create habitat, purify water, and shield infrastructure. These plants tend to accumulate the thick mud of marshes which prevents the soil from washing away. Animals that live in wetlands depend on plants or plant-eating animals for their food supply. Without wetland vegetation, the supply chain would self-destruct. By absorbing nutrients and chemicals from the water and sediment, plants reduce toxins and groundwater contamination. Wetland vegetation is key to preventing shoreline erosion and reducing storm surge which affects the coastal infrastructure.

The Coastal Wetlands Planning, Protection and Restoration Act funds a variety of wetland enhancement projects, such as vegetative planting. Vegetative planting is the process of planting by hand or aerial seeding to shore up eroding banks and jump-start plant colonization.

You can read more about CWPPRA Projects that use the vegetative planting restoration technique by clicking here.

Wetland Soils

World Soil Day was officially celebrated on December 5th. This day was created in an effort to share the importance of healthy soil and advocate for the sustainable management of soil resources. Wetland soils, also known as hydric soils, are permanently or seasonally saturated by water and develop anaerobic conditions. Soils’ ability to store surface or ground water and bio-geochemical processes are critical to wetland function and maintaining a healthy ecosystem. Wetland scientists spend a great deal of their time performing soil surveys. Different wetland types feature different soil types. Soils should be evaluated for the presence of pesticides or dangerous elements that could cause damage to the vegetation and animals of that wetland site.

This day was created in an effort to focus on the importance of soil as a critical component of natural systems and as a vital contributor to human well-being.

Wetland_Soils_HydricSoil_Probe-1080x675

Interesting fact:

  • 95% of our food comes from the soil

 

Plants of the Wetlands

Did you know:

Coastal wetland plants are indicators of soil and hydrologic conditions.

Wetlands and vegetation go hand-in-hand when it comes to the success of a healthy coastal ecosystem. The diminished well-being of a wetland plant community often beacons unfavorable conditions of soil or water quality.

Wetland vegetation reduces erosion primarily by damping and absorbing wave and current energy and by binding and stabilizing the soil with roots. Also, plants are the base of the food chain and can build new layers of material on top of wetlands that support sustainability. The Coastal Wetlands Planning, Protection, and Restoration Act uses the vegetative planting technique involving flood- and salt-tolerant native marsh plants to establish erosion reduction, soil stabilization, and accelerated wildlife habitat development.

 

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